Endocrinology and Metabolism Diseases

Endocrinology and Metabolism Diseases

Endokrinoloji ve Metabolizma Hastalıkları

Endocrinology and metabolism Thanks to the hormones it contains, it has the ability to maintain the salt-water level in the body, grow, reproduce, develop and maintain all conditions of life. Hormones secreted in the endocrine gland have enzymes that activate the organs.

As it is effective in the shape and growth of cells; It is a tool for all needs such as sending a feeling of hunger to the brain and keeping the heart pumping blood. Hormones attach to the sugar in the human body, attach to the necessary cells and enable the organs to function.

 Endocrinology and metabolic diseases, endocrine glands, the functions of these glands and the hormones they secrete.

The structures we call hormones, which are transferred to the blood by the endocrine glands in our body, control many mechanisms in our body, along with other systems, and are the branch of science that studies this entire system. endocrinology It is called.

The endocrine system, consisting of endocrine glands, maintains body balance and ensures that the body remains stable against abnormal external factors.

Hormones produced by the endocrine system form complex components with nutrients taken from the blood vessels. These components are delivered to the relevant part of the body and trigger the functioning of the organ. Endocrinology and metabolism They are considered hormonally complementary.

Endocrine glands pass directly into the blood; exocrine glands, salivary gland, liver and prostate gland.

Sub-branch of internal medicine endocrinology Experts' areas of study are quite wide.

  • Prolactin (milk hormone) hormone excess
  • Cortisol hormone excess
  • Cortisol hormone excess (CUSHING DISEASE)
  • Deficiency in growth hormone
  • diabetes insipidus
  • Excess growth hormone

Parathyroid hormone excess and deficiency

  • Lack of estrogen hormone
  • polycystic ovary syndrome
  • abnormal hair growth
  • Breast enlargement in men
  • Hormonal erection problems and impotence
  • testosterone deficiency
  • Lack of beard and penis development
  • Cortisol hormone deficiency
  • Cortisol hormone excess
  • Adrenal hormone excess
  • Aldosterone hormone excess
  • Goiter
  • thyroid cancer
  • Too much or too little thyroid gland function
  • Thyroid diseases with nodules
  • Hashimoto's disease
  • Inflammatory diseases of the thyroid gland
  • sugar crashes
  • Diabetes
  • Weight control and obesity
  • insulin resistance syndrome
  • diseases related to vitamins and minerals (especially vitamin D and calcium metabolism)
  • uric acid excess
  • Endocrinology and metabolism Focused tumoral diseases
  • High blood fats and cholesterol

Endocrinology It is a unit where detailed internal organ analyzes and treatment are carried out together with internal medicine. Metabolic disorder, metabolic bone diseases, thyroid, pituitary, adrenal glands, estrogen and testosterone hormone disorders, fat, carbohydrate and protein metabolism disorders, hypertension, problems in growth and development. endocrinology and metabolic diseases is examined. Endocrinologists provide diagnosis, treatment and follow-up on the patient's endocrine and exocrine glands.

Endocrinology and metabolism units have a wide range of healthy options for treatment methods as well as their examination areas. When necessary, the area the patient is complaining about is examined in detail, accompanied by laboratory tests and radiological examinations. There are treatment methods for all endocrinology and metabolic diseases, from surgical procedures to medications. With diagnostic solutions, the patient returns to his normal life quickly.

Diabetes is a metabolic disease that is frequently seen in people who have unhealthy living habits. Proteins, carbohydrates and fats that cannot be enzymed sufficiently cause hormonal disorders in the body.

In a person with diabetes; Symptoms such as dry mouth, blurred vision, severe fatigue, numbness in the feet, weight loss, urinary tract and fungal infections, and abnormal dryness of the skin may be observed.

Diabetes disease is evaluated in two different branches as type 1 and type 2. Unfortunately, there is no cure for type 1 diabetes. If type 2; It can be prevented by diet, healthy lifestyle habits and avoiding stress. People with type 1 diabetes have a very low stress threshold, but they experience sudden weight loss. This type, also known as juvenile diabetes, usually develops during adolescence and infancy. There is no insulin enzyme that needs to be secreted in the body. In type 2 diabetes, which differs from type 1 diabetes in this regard, although there is an insulin enzyme, there are problems in its secretion.

People with type 2 diabetes experience sudden numbness and tingling in their hands and feet. Symptoms can go unnoticed for years, and Type 2 diabetes is a condition that increases over time.

Healthy cells in the body of type 1 diabetic patients are seen as malignant as a defense mechanism. It begins to destroy benign insulin cells in the pancreas.

People with type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance. Excess weight and unqualified living are the biggest threats of this type.

It arises from the problem of overdevelopment of certain organs in the body. endocrinology and metabolism It is one of the ailments. It occurs as a result of suppression of growth hormone caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland. Another reason is that it occurs due to the presence of abnormal levels of growth hormone in the body.

Focused on Pituitary Tumor
  • Headache and poor vision
  • Sexual reluctance and menstrual irregularity in women
Focused on Growth Hormone Excess
  • Shapeless growths on facial lines (enlargement of the nose, thickening of the lips, long chin and forehead)
  • Skin changes and oiliness (abnormal thickening in certain areas)
  • Tongue growth and voice deepening
  • Enlargement of hands and feet
  • Enlargement of internal organs such as the heart
  • Joint pain and indefinite fatigue
  • Change in tooth structure and separation of teeth

Acromegaly patients can return to their healthy lives with the right treatment. The healing process is initiated through three options: drug treatment, surgical procedures and radiation therapy. Although the initial treatment is usually surgery, drug treatment is started in patients who do not respond to surgery.

Primary adrenal insufficiency; It is triggered by the spread of cancer cells to the adrenal gland, tuberculosis, bacteria, viruses and fungi. Cortisol production cannot be achieved.

Secondary adrenal insufficiency: endocrinology It occurs in the absence of secretion of the pituitary hormone ACTH, which is frequently included in the field of research. Aldosterone release cannot be achieved.

Symptoms vary depending on the lack of hormone secretion. For example; Cortisol deficiency is a stress trigger. It manages the body's response in a stressful situation. It ensures the regulation of protein, fat and carbohydrates. It keeps blood pressure at a stable level by examining inflammation.

In patients with adrenal deficiency; The kidneys cannot maintain water and salt balance. The body becomes dehydrated, blood pressure constantly drops and fainting begins. There is a serious decrease in appetite and weight loss. They feel an abnormal need to eat salt. Pain in muscles and bones is followed by nausea. Especially in women, hair growth in the armpit area and genital area is greatly reduced.

The treatment used for adrenal deficiency is usually hormone replacement. One of the synthetic steroid or fludrocortisone acetate supplements provides adrenal hormone support. Since the disorder progresses very slowly, the patient may be delayed in noticing it.

PTH hormone, located behind the thyroid gland, helps keep calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood at a stable level. If calcium is too low, the parathyroid hormone begins to secrete PTH. Endocrinology and metabolism It is one of the diseases that may be linked to cancer.

If PTH begins to be released excessively into the blood, hyperparathyroidism occurs and the calcium rate in the body gradually increases. Too high or too low PTH hormone level disrupts the balance of vitamin D and calcium in the body and begins to cause problems in the kidneys and bones.

It shows its first symptoms with frequent bone and joint pain. Kidney stones, bone problems and stress disorders can then be predicted. Sometimes the symptoms are mild and only problems such as high blood pressure and inability to concentrate are experienced.

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